Tulcea County occupies the northern half of the historical province Dobrogea, located in the south-eastern extremity of Romania. Surrounded on three sides by water, it is bordered to the west by the counties Brăila and Galaţi, to the north with Ukraine through the natural border Danube, to the east by the Black Sea, having terrestrial border only to the south with Constanţa County.

The relief of the county also includes the Horst of Dobrogea, remnant of the hercinic creases, which presents itself as a typical plateau, which determines the existence of three biogeographical zones: the steppe, the steppe forest and the forest. The archaeological discoveries on the territory of Tulcea County have put into light traces of habitation with an age of approx. 110,000 years. On the archaeological map of the county, the vestiges of the cultures Hamangia, Gumelniţa and Thracian-Dacian, of the Getic-Dacian fortresses and of the great Roman city buildings offer important documentary evidence of the material and spiritual life on these lands.

Touristic routes: Mahmudia (commune) – the Danube Delta – Tulcei Hills/Beştepe Hill/Danube (Sfântu Gheorghe) – the ruins of the fortress Salsovia from the Roman-Byzantine Age. See attractions

Mahmudia locality is located in the western part of Tulcea County, locality located 8 km from Beştepe and 28 km from Tulcea. Mahmudia commune is bounded by the following territories: to the north, the administrative territory of Maliuc commune, to the east and south, the administrative territory of Murighiol commune, to the west, the administrative territories of the communes Beştepe and Valea Nucărilor.

The commune is composed of the villages: Mahmudia – residence village, Beştepe, Băltenii de Sus and Bălteni de Jos.

Salsovia fortress, at the side of Mahmudia, like the archaeological vestiges strewn throughout the entire territory of the commune, attest a long population of these lands from the fourth century BC until the early feudal period. Over the years Mahmudia commune was inhabited by a heterogeneous population comprised of Romanians, Turks, Tatars, Russians, Lippovans, Ukrainians and Bulgarians.

Mahmudia locality is the second entrance gate in the Danube Delta. The connection with Tulcea Municipality and the rest of the country is made by road and river.

After 1970, were discovered the limestone deposits from Dobrogea, the raw material necessary for Galati Steel Mill and thus Mahmudia knows a great economical development until 1989. The agricultural surfaces are exploited in the individual households or in small family associations. In this area are bred in particular: sheep, cattle, pigs, and poultry. Fish-breeding, trade, tourism, the supplies of services and the exploitation of ores industry are other domains in which a large part of the inhabitants of Mahmudia commune develop their activity.

Population

The historical conditions specific to Tulcea County imprinted a mosaical appearance to the population of Mahmudia commune, reflected in the ethnic and religious structure, in which the Romanian and Orthodox element has remained predominant. After nationality we have: Romanians, Lippovan Russians, Ukrainians, Turks and Bulgarians.

Flora and fauna

The area has a petrophillic steppe vegetation and several protected species such as Paronychia cephalotes, Koeleria lobata etc. Numerous faunistic species, especially day aquatic or predatory birds – the great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), the great bittern (Botaurus stellaris), the little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus), the purple heron (Ardea purpurea), the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), the short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), the rosy starling (Sturnus roseus) etc.

Agriculture

The basic occupations are agriculture, livestock farming, fishing, hunting, beekeeping, braiding of rushes and exploitation of limestone. There are several agricultural associations focused on cereal crops, technical plants and grapevine.

Livestock Farming and Milk and Meat Processing

Fishing is another important activity of the locals, together with agritourism. Fishing reaches the peak moment in the spring months, when it takes place the migration of the sprat on the Danube, upstream.
In the last years however, is recorded a decline of the traditional activities of animal husbandry and fish breeding.

Tourism and Agritourism

Although it suffers a lot from the recoil recorded by the steel industry, the village is likely to further develop, taking advantage of the high touristic potential or of the development of its complementary activities. The touristic potential of Mahmudia commune derives from the location of the locality on the left bank of Sf. Gheorghe arm. Tourism has quite old roots, due to its favorable position, on the shores of the southern arm of the delta.

Celebrations

The village keeps a number of traditional customs related to birth, marriage, death, to the celebrations of the Orthodox calendar or certain celebrations with agrarian character. The most spectacular are the customs of the winter holidays – that begin since the Christmas Eve (December 24) and end at the Epiphany (January 6): caroling, Plugusorul, sowing, sorcova, the goat, the bear, etc.